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A taxonomic revision of members of the genus Meligethes Stephens, 1830 is carried out. Taxonomic and distributional notes are provided on fiftythree Meligethes species, mostly known from the Eastern Palearctic and marginally from the Western Palearctic and the Oriental Regions. Among these, twentythree new species of Meligethes are diagnosed, figured and described: M. argentithorax sp. n. (Central China: Shaanxi, Shanxi), M. aurantirugosus sp. n. (Nepal), M. aureolineatus sp. n. (Central China: Sichuan), M. aurifer sp. n. (Central China: Shaanxi, Shanxi), M. brassicogethoides sp. n. (SW China: Yunnan), M. clinei sp. n. (SW China: Yunnan), M. elytralis sp. n. (Central China: Sichuan), M. ferruginoides sp. n. (Central China: Sichuan), M. cinereoargenteus sp. n. (Central China: Sichuan), M. henan sp. n. (Central China: Henan), M. luteoornatus sp. n. (SW China: Yunnan), M. marmota sp. n. (Nepal), M. nivalis sp. n. (SW and central China: Xizang and Chongqing), M. martes sp. n. (Central China: Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan), M. nigroaeneus sp. n. (SW China: Yunnan), M. occultus sp. n. (SW China: Yunnan), M. pseudochinensis sp. n. (Central China: Hubei), M. pseudopectoralis sp. n. (SW China: Yunan), M. schuelkei sp. n. (Central China: Sichuan, Shaanxi), M. simulator sp. n. (Central-N China: Shanxi), M. stenotarsus sp. n. (SW China: Yunnan, Xizang), M. tryznai sp. n. (SW China: Yunnan), and M. volkovichi sp. n. (SW China: Yunnan). Revaluations at specific rank from synonymy are introduced for Meligethes lutra Solsky 1860, and for M. melleus Grouvelle, 1908. Three new synonymies are established: Meligethes brevipilus Kirejtshuk, 1980 = M. auripilis Reitter, 1889 (syn. n.), Meligethes zakharenkoi Kirejtshuk, 2005 = M. shirakii Sadanari Hisamatsu, 1956 (syn. n.), and Meligethes shirozui Sadanari Hisamatsu, 1965 = M. wagneri Rebmann, 1956 (syn. n.). Complete redescriptions are given for Meligethes binotatus Grouvelle, 1894, M. castanescens Grouvelle, 1903, M. ferrugineus Reitter, 1873, and M. melleus Grouvelle, 1908. The male of Meligethes lloydi Easton, 1968, is described and figured for the first time. The female genitalia of Meligethes auricomus Rebmann, 1956, M. cinereus Jelínek, 1978, and M. griseus Jelínek, 1978 are described and figured for the first time. Available information on insect-host-plant relationships and ecology are summarized for each species; probably all are associated as larvae with flowers of Rosaceae, chiefly of members of the closely related genera Rosa L., Rubus L., Prunus L., and Crataegus Tourn. ex L. All treated species are grouped in two here revaluated subgenera (Meligethes s.str. and Odonthogethes Reitter, 1871), and tentatively grouped also in species-groups and (when necessary) species-complexes, based on their morphology.
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