Check Out Latest Updates

Arthropod Biodiversity

Arthropod Biodiversity: Ecological And Functional Aspects

There are various groups and species of animals in the animal kingdom. Arthropods are among them, referring to a family of insects, crustaceans, spiders, and other species. They are a group of animals characterized by exoskeletons, joint legs, and other features that provide them the ample support needed.

These insects are crucial in maintaining the ecosystem’s balance as pollinators. Pollinators are insects or groups of animals that carry pollen grains from one flower to another and help in the flowering process. In this article, we have mentioned the ecological and functional aspects of arthropods.

The ecological aspect of arthropods

It is essential to know that anthropoids are present in almost every habitat, from the deepest oceans to the highest mountains and sunniest deserts. As mentioned above, they play a crucial role in maintaining the balance in the ecosystem as both producers and consumers. For example, insects like honeybees, beetles, and butterflies are essential insects that help pollinate and fertilize flowering plants.

Arthropods are also classified as decomposers like flies and beetles, which help break down the organic matter in the environment and help reach the nutrients back to the ground. In addition, they also serve as food for other insects, other arthropods, and species of birds and mammals.


Since a diverse variety exists, each is essential to maintain the ecosystem and has an inevitable environmental consequence. For instance, if there is a decrease in the number of arthropods helping in pollination, there will be a decrease in the population of flowering plants, which can have an imbalance in the ecosystem. Similarly, a shortage of decomposing arthropods will also lead to a degradation in the nutrition factor of the ecosystem.

The functional aspect of arthropods

Not only do these classes of insects help maintain the ecological balance, but they are functional in different industries. One of the most famous examples is that of the honeybees, which help produce raw honey and silkworms used to produce pure silk. Besides, arthropods are also utilized in other industries like pest control. Some of them are useful in preventing the crops from an infestation of pests; hence, they are used to make biological agents to prevent crops in the garden from the growth of harmful pests.

Recently, they are also being used as a subject for scientific research to study their behavior in different filed. For example, studying their behavior has opened a new area of science that helps understand the social behavior between different insects and their mode of communication. In addition to this, their anatomy has also helped develop new industries and technologies. Behavior has opened a new area of science that helps understand the social behavior between different insects and their mode of communication. In addition to this, their anatomy has also helped develop new industries and technologies.


An Overview Of Entomology And Its Significance

Entomology is zoology’s branch that studies insects, their morphology, anatomy, and other characteristics. It is another field of science that has also helped entomologists study the characteristics and behavior of millions of insects worldwide.

There are billions of species of insects on this planet that have survived for millions of years. While some are extinct, others are abundant. This shows that insects and arthropods have a large composition in the animal kingdom and are primarily found in every part of the earth.


Significance of entomology

Entomologists have contributed significantly to studying the various applications of insets in agriculture, public health, and forestry. As mentioned above, this plant has billions of insects, some poisonous, others non-poisonous, and non-harmful. However, apart from humans, insects also seriously threaten different plants and animals. Therefore, entomology plays a crucial role in understanding insect behavior and the relationship between food, humans, their biodiversity, and the environment.


Depending on the type of insect and the crop they act on, they’re mainly divided into two categories- the ones which pose a threat to plants and crops and the others that are beneficial in controlling pests. Entomologists help study the different characteristics of insects, which helps develop different pest control strategies.


While some smaller insects attack shrubs and small plants, others attack trees and cause severe threats to wildlife and the flora in a forest. Entomology helps determine the different species of insects that cause harm to the forest and also understand the role of insects in the forest ecosystem.

Public health

It is a no-brainer that insects transfer diseases like dengue, malaria, Lyme disease, fever, etc., and also play an essential role in transferring diseases. Therefore, entomologists need to study their biology and behavior and understand different mechanisms and strategies to fight against them.

Applications of entomology

Apart from the significance of entomology in the three major fields, there is also a more comprehensive range of applications like the ones mentioned below.

Environmental science

Insects are sensitive to changes in their outside environment, like rainfall, temperature, moisture, humidity, etc., and their growth patterns depend on these factors. In the field of environmental science, insects provide ways to understand the different ecological issues, the effects of deforestation and other conditions.

Applications of entomology

Forensic entomology

As surprising as it sounds, insects play a significant role in criminal investigations. It helps investigators with the different human remains, their body’s exposure to different elements, the reason for diseases, and other important information.

Key Takeaway

Entomology, although essential in different fields, is still a growing field in the branch of zoology, which helps determine the role of insects in different ecosystems and their effect on humans and animals. It is also a branch that helps deal with different strategies to protect humans and other organisms.


Guide To Ethology: Exploring The Study Of Animal Behavior

When we see different animals performing certain acts, like running away from predators, making noises to communicate, or doing a waggle dance, we often find it ‘weird.’ But, their behavior patterns keep them safe from their predators and protect their offspring. There is a separate study dedicated to learning animal behavior, termed ethology.

Ethology is the scientific study of animal behavior which encompasses the behavior of different animals, from reptiles to fish, insects, and mammals. The people who work in this field are called ethologists, who dedicate their research to understanding the ecological and evolutionary factors that play a significant role in animal behavior. They also extend their research and study to understand the neural and cognitive processes that influence animal behavior.


According to ethologists, natural selection is one of the principal factors influencing animal behavior. This means the adaptation process of animals in different environments, their reproduction, and their habitat often play a crucial role in developing stimuli and influencing their behavior over time. For instance, various species of birds and mammals develop different mating patterns to attract quality mates and enhance the success rate of their reproduction process.

Proximate and ultimate causation

Proximate and ultimate causation is one of the key concepts of ethology, which refers to the immediate psychological behavior of animals that is directly associated with external and environmental factors. For example, a bird singing is a sign of calling for a mate for reproduction. However, its behavior is based on the neural and hormonal activity in its brain. Therefore, ultimate causation is defined as the purpose of the behavior of animals and birds. In this case, the behavior is represented to enhance the chances of reproduction and the success rate.

Methods of ethology

Many ethnologists all over the world have various patterns of study which influence their case of study of animal behavior. One of the most common methods is field observation. In this method, they study and observe the animals in their natural habitat and learn the reason behind every movement.

Another important method is through laboratory observations of animals under study and the various factors which have a drastic impact on their behavior, like:

  • Reproductive status
  • Social environment
  • Diet

Comparative psychology is a tool that helps compare the different behavior in animals, gain insights into their movements, and better understand their behavior in a systematic pattern. For example, many ethologists also study the behavior of different species of primates to gain insights into the evolution and the change in human behavior.


Importance of ethology

Apart from the advantages mentioned above, ethology also helps in different fields like the following:

  • Pet training to better understand the behavior of their pets
  • Human safety, which helps people keep themselves safe during wild encounters
  • Animal welfare and conservation to protect vulnerable species

Best Books About Trees and Nature

Trees and forests are some of the most exciting things in the world. They’re endlessly fascinating, and there’s much to learn about how they grow and interact with the ecosystems around them.

Trees are social beings that communicate with each other, have feelings and emotions, remember things from their past, sense time and have a sense of self.

They also have a sense of death and dying—a “social” tree will warn its neighbors about impending death.

“Last Child in the Woods” by Richard Louv

Louv’s book is a wake-up call to the dangers of kids spending too much time indoors. It’s also a call to action for parents who want their children to be healthy, happy, and well-adjusted adults.

“The Overstory” by Richard Powers

The Overstory is a literary masterpiece—a beautiful and poetic novel that tells the story of the destruction of America’s forests. In it, Pulitzer Prize-winning author Richard Powers weaves together nine different stories to explore what happens to our planet when we put too much value on money.

The book is told through multiple perspectives and uses a variety of literary techniques to tell its story: narration, dialogue, third person omniscient point of view (allowing us to see inside the minds of several characters), flashbacks, letters between two people who are not present at their writing; even some poetry from time to time!

"The Overstory" by Richard Powers

“Nature and the Human Soul” by Bill Plotkin

The book is divided into four sections, each covering a different aspect of nature and its importance to our well-being. The first section deals with the importance of connecting with nature in order to find balance in our daily lives.

Plotkin encourages readers to spend time outside and explore their surroundings while also making sure they don’t forget about work or school obligations that may come up during this time.

The second section focuses on how we can connect more deeply with ourselves through nature as well as how we can use it as a tool for healing ourselves and others around us if needed.

Plotkin explains how people often feel disconnected from themselves because they are constantly busy or overworked. Still, this disconnection leads us further away from our true selves instead of closer toward them—something he believes is necessary for mental health (and overall happiness).

“The Nature Principle” by Richard Louv

If you’re looking to get more in touch with nature and learn how to bring it into your life, “The Nature Principle” is an excellent place to start. The book was written by Richard Louv, whose previous work explored the importance of spending time outdoors to improve mental health and well-being.

In this book, he describes how our connection with nature affects not only our minds but also our bodies, communities, and even economies. He argues that we should all be striving for what he calls “Nature Deficit Disorder,” which makes us more productive at work and in school when we take regular breaks from computers or television screens.

He also offers tips on getting better access if you live in an urban area where green space isn’t plentiful—like joining a community garden! These books will teach you about nature and forests and help you connect with them. As you read these books, you will learn about the benefits of connecting with nature. These books will help you connect with the natural world and teach you how to reconnect with it.


What is Biodiversity? Why is it Important?

The term biodiversity refers to all kinds of life that you will find on the face of the earth. This includes algae, microorganisms, plants, animals, and all other forms of life that are part of the natural world. All these forms of life together form an ecosystem and maintain the ecological balance.

But due to various human activities like overconsumption of resources and the production of non-renewable wastes, we are on the verge of losing biodiversity and disrupting the balance of the ecosystem. Based on the reports WWF’s 20202 reports. Compared to the 1970s, the population of many mammals and many other creatures has been reduced by 68 percent. Various other reports state that more than one million animal and plant species are on the verge of extinction.


If you are wondering why biodiversity is important, you may read this guide and understand its importance in the survival of mankind and the stability of the planet.

Ecological importance

Biodiversity is important for the stability of ecology. For instance, the organisms that are present in the soil improve the storage of water and prevent soil erosion. Healthy biodiversity will improve the quality of the soil. Only good soil will provide scope for good agriculture.

Healthy biodiversity will provide a good ecosystem that supplies clean oxygen, provide clean water, and air, enable the pollination of plants, treat wastewater, and provide numerous other services.

Biodiversity also plays a major role in managing pollution. For instance, the trees and vegetation will absorb nitrogen oxide, ozone, and other harmful gases and improve air quality.

Biodiversity is crucial for the recycling of nutrients. For instance, plants absorb nutrients from the soil, which is the foundation for nutrients in the food chain. They also reduce the risks of natural disasters.

Economic importance

Biodiversity is very important for the stability of the economy. They are the main source of food for all organisms. They provide fossil fuels, petrol, and natural gases. Many of the medicines that we consume are made of plants and other organisms that are found in the ecosystem.

Biodiversity boost tourism. As we know, places that are rich in wildlife and plants are good for trekking and attract a lot of tourists, thus providing more wealth to the economy.

Social importance

Biodiversity has many social benefits. Along with improving employment opportunities, biodiversity also helps in the development of many rural people.

Ethical importance

Healthy biodiversity has an ethical role. It protects all forms of life and teaches us that all living being has the right to survive on earth.

Thus, healthy biodiversity is crucial for the stability of the ecosystem and all form of living organisms on the face of the planet. So, do not overlook their importance and understand that all form of life has the right to live on this planet.


Morphology and its types

Biology’s study of the dimensions, forms and internal relationships of plants, animals, and microbes is known as morphology. The concept describes the basic biological features of a plant’s or animal’s component arrangement and structure. Both the form, shape, and structure of internal components like bones and organs as well as aspects of the exterior look, or external morphology, are included in this.

Morphological classification principles

Closely related plant and animal species can be distinguished by subtle changes in size, color, and proportion. While typically not unique to a single division or phylum, the main categories, or phyla, of the kingdoms of plants and animals are characterized by features that appear in distinctive combinations in each. The existence or non – availability of cell differentiation., the possibility that an animal is either single-celled or made up of a variety of cell types that are each specialized to carry out specific functions—is the basic morphological trait that is used to categorize animals and determine their evolutionary relationships.

Types of morphology

Morphology gives us a foundation for understanding functionality, taxonomy, inheritance, ecosystem, evolution, and other biological branches, giving us a base from which to explore other biological branches. There are different types of morphology which include:

cellular morphology

The field of research known as cellular morphology studies the composition, arrangement, and size of prokaryotes within a cell. The shape and size of cells vary. Wall-building epithelial cells restrict substances from freely moving from one end to the other. Squamous denotes a wide shape, cuboidal a cube, and columnar a rectangle. While fat accumulation cells are large and spherical, nerve cells are thin and long.

Tissue morphology

Tissue morphology

For cell function and tissue growth, the proper nuclear location is essential. However, the cytoskeletal components in charge of nuclear placement differ depending on the cell setting. Different functional morphologies exist among tissues. Long, twisted bundles are formed by skeletal muscle cells. Lung epithelial epithelium contains grape-like cell sacs that effectively exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide. Walking and running cause injuries that cartilage absorbs.

Organ morphology

Similar patterns of function and structure can be found in organ morphology. Multiple tissues are functionally grouped together to form organs. Even both sides of the body are not quite equal, and several human internal organs (e.g., the heart) are not symmetrical. This work advances our understanding of the entire body by clarifying how organs are created. There are four chambers in the heart. The muscle walls of the ventricles are thicker than those of the atria.

Whole Organism

The morphology of the creature is at its best. In biology, there are numerous morphological examples. The two fundamental anatomical planes in animals are radial symmetry which can be found in starfish and bilateral symmetry found in lobster. Running limb structure is different from swimming fin structure. To maintain balance and regulate body temperature, dolphins have five fins. Cheetahs can run quickly because of their light, aerodynamic bodies.


How To become an Ethologist

Are you an animal lover? Would you like to study them and gain insight into their behaviors? Then you should try to become an Ethologist. So, who is an ethologist?

An ethologist is a scientist who closely works with animals and study about their behavioral pattern. They will observe, study, and research and come to conclusions about various behaviors in animals. They study various animals, observe animals in the field, travel around to observe them, or may study domesticated animals, or observe them in a laboratory in controlled conditions. To, conclude, ethologists are scientist who will study animal behaviors and look into the activities and attributes that contributes to their behaviors.

If this job sounds interesting to you, you may follow this guide to learn how to become an ethologist.

How to become an ethologist?

You may follow these steps to become an ethologist.

Prepare early

If you start early, you will be able to set the right road map. For instance, if you are a high school student who wants to pursue a career in ethology, you may take biology, chemistry, and classes of statistics which will help you build a strong foundation. You can also consider taking English classes, as you need to have a good grasp of the subject to read and write efficiently.


You can also consider going for volunteering programs as it will help you gain skills that are needed to work with animals. Try to volunteer in a zoo or a nature preserve to gain the right knowledge. This will also help you understand whether this is the right job for you.

Get a bachelor’s degree

If you want to pursue this career, you should have a bachelor’s degree in the field. You should pursue your study in biology, chemistry, animal science, or other fields that are related to it. By studying in these fields, you will be able to learn biological theories of behaviors, animal cognition, animal social behaviors, neurology, and other courses that will help you build a strong foundation.

With a bachelor’s degree, you will be able to get a job as a research assistant. Even though you won’t be able to implement independent studies, you will be able to work in the laboratory under the guidance of professionals.

Gain field experience

Experience is one of the keys to attaining your goals.  After finishing your degree or while doing it, find opportunities that are related to the field. Having field experience will help you stand out and will give you a competitive edge while applying for a job. You can take up volunteer opportunities or work as a research assistant to gain knowledge and skills.

So, equip yourself with relevant skills and qualifications to achieve your goal.

Study Ecology

Study Ecology: All you need to know

Ecology is the study of living organisms, especially focusing on how they interact with their habitats. Ecology is a sub-division of study that comes under Biology. Biology is the study of all living forms of life. Ecology studies the environment at different levels, which includes the biotic and abiotic factors that help sustain life on Earth. Ecologists research how human activity impacts the natural processes and affects Earth’s ecosystem. The core goal of ecologists is to understand how the physical environment affects the development of living things and vice versa. They study the patterns in nature that are influenced by other organisms living in the habitat and factors such as climate, geography, and seasons. Ecology is suitable for students who are interested in a career in conservation or habitat management.

Ecologists study different environments, from microscopic bacteria to large organisms found in deserts, oceans, and land. The study of ecology is classified into five broad levels, based on the environment and field of scope. Molecular ecology studies how the gene information in an organism’s DNA affects its interactions with the environment. They study adaptations over time and how the organisms evolve with respect to natural selection, which allows them to adapt to their habitats. Organismal Ecology deals with studying individual species, their physiology, and behaviors concerning the environment and other species in the ecosystem.


The field of Population Ecology studies the growth of the population of organisms and how they change over time with respect to other species living in the area. Community Ecologists explore how different species in a habitat interact and behave with each other. The study gives important insights into how these interactions can help shape the community. In Ecosystem Ecology, researchers examine how entire ecosystems coexist and how abiotic and biotic factors play into this interaction. Ecosystem ecology focuses on the energy and nutrient flow within an ecosystem. Biosphere Ecologists view Earth as one giant ecological system; they study patterns such as climate change or species distribution and the interaction of the species with the environment as a whole.

The studies and ongoing research in Ecology help us better understand the world around us. The studies help us improve the environment by efficiently managing natural resources and provide insight into improving the ecosystem’s health. Ecological studies provide important information about land, soil, and water pollution. This information can then be unitized for improving human activities and taking necessary steps to restore the ecosystems. There have been instances where a non-native species introduced into the ecosystem destroyed other areas. A popular example is the ‘gypsy moth,’ introduced in 1868 in the United States by a French Scientist and developed into a pest, destroying the native habitats. Ecological research also studies how non-native species in an area can affect the habitats or completely destroy them in the worst cases.

Brackish Waters

5 Creatures That Live in Brackish Waters

Brackish water is neither saline water nor freshwater – it is something in between the two. It occurs where oceans meet outwardly flowing freshwater rivers or streams. Examples of brackish water are estuaries, mangrove swamps, and salt marshes. Brackish water has a diverse group of species that inhabit them, which have adapted to this kind of environment. Below listed are some of the most common species that live in brackish waters.



Mudskipper is one of the special creatures that can only be found in brackish waters. They are amphibious creatures, enabling them to live comfortably in both water and land. These unusual creatures spend more time on land than on water and can breathe with the help of gills, skin, and the linings of the mouth and throat. They have specially adapted to enable them to travel on the land using their pectoral fins to move forward using a series of skips or jumps.

Archer Fish:

Archer Fish is most commonly found in brackish waters around mangroves. These carnivorous fish have a unique method of catching prey. Archerfish prefer to prey on land insects, and they capture them by shooting a powerful jet of water from their mouths to knock their targets into the water. They are also characterized by an excellent binocular vision that enables them to aim better. Archerfish seem to have adapted well, which enables them to live in both oceans and streams.

Bumblebee Goby:

As the name indicates, Bumblebee Goby looks just like bumblebees with its distinctive yellow and black stripes. Some other variations of this species also exhibit black and white stripes. Due to their pleasing appearance, these brackish species are kept in aquariums as pets. Taking care of a Bumblebee Goby in an aquarium is no easy task, as the species is naturally found in brackish waters. If kept in aquariums, they can be together with other brackish water fish species such as Mudskippers, Scats, Giant Sailfin mollies, Siamese Tigerfish, etc.

Orange Chromide

Orange Chromide:

Orange Chromides in their natural habitats have a subdued coloring but those kept in a fish tank exhibit the popular bright orange color. Although orange chromides are naturally found in brackish waters, they are also adapted to live in freshwater. Orange Chromides generally feed on zooplankton, algae, eggs, and larvae of the green chromides.

Cat Fish:

These unique-looking fishes are popular for their barbels which resemble a cat’s whiskers. These brackish water creatures feed on aquatic insects, larvae, small fishes, and algae. When they hunt, they use their whisker-like barbels to detect food. When they have detected food, the mouth and throat of the catfish expand outward and form suction that is necessary to catch the prey.